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If you are using the new Flask configuration together with the application factory pattern, one thing you will want to do if using SQLAlchemy is initialize a SQLAlchemy session for different requirements. For example, for unit tests you don't want to use the production database.
Furthermore you may need to use a SQLAlchemy session outside the request scope, for example in the shell.
The scoped_session function, which provides a thread-safe session, expects a factory function. Normally we would use sessionmaker:
from sqlalchemy import create_engine from sqlalchemy.orm import scoped_session, sessionmaker engine = create_engine("sqlite:///myapp.db") db_session = scoped_session(sessionmaker(bind=engine))
In order to initialize SQLAlchemy dynamically however we need to pass in a factory function that does not require a ready engine instance. For this we can use create_session:
from sqlalchemy import create_engine from sqlalchemy.orm import scoped_session, create_session engine = None db_session = scoped_session(lambda: create_session(bind=engine))
We then need a function to create the engine when needed:
def init_engine(uri, **kwargs): global engine engine = create_engine(uri, **kwargs) return engine
Provided you call init_engine first you can then use db_session thereafter, as the scoped_session will bind the session to the current value of engine.
You can call init_engine in your application factory function:
def create_app(config): app = Flask(__name__) app.config.from_pyfile(config) init_engine(app.config['DATABASE_URI']) return app
Now you can use the db_session anywhere in your application, as long as you first call create_app.
This snippet by Dan Jacob can be used freely for anything you like. Consider it public domain.