Step 4: Request Database Connections¶
Now we know how we can open database connections and use them for scripts, but how can we elegantly do that for requests? We will need the database connection in all our functions so it makes sense to initialize them before each request and shut them down afterwards.
@app.before_request def before_request(): g.db = connect_db() @app.teardown_request def teardown_request(exception): db = getattr(g, 'db', None) if db is not None: db.close()
Functions marked with
before_request() are called before
a request and passed no arguments. Functions marked with
after_request() are called after a request and
passed the response that will be sent to the client. They have to return
that response object or a different one. They are however not guaranteed
to be executed if an exception is raised, this is where functions marked with
teardown_request() come in. They get called after the
response has been constructed. They are not allowed to modify the request, and
their return values are ignored. If an exception occurred while the request was
being processed, it is passed to each function; otherwise, None is passed in.
We store our current database connection on the special
object that Flask provides for us. This object stores information for one
request only and is available from within each function. Never store such
things on other objects because this would not work with threaded
environments. That special
g object does some magic behind
the scenes to ensure it does the right thing.
For an even better way to handle such resources see the Using SQLite 3 with Flask documentation.
Continue to Step 5: The View Functions.
Where do I put this code?
If you’ve been following along in this tutorial, you might be wondering
where to put the code from this step and the next. A logical place is to
group these module-level functions together, and put your new
teardown_request functions below your existing
init_db function (following the tutorial line-by-line).
If you need a moment to find your bearings, take a look at how the example source is organized. In Flask, you can put all of your application code into a single Python module. You don’t have to, and if your app grows larger, it’s a good idea not to.